Mongolian history & culture
History & Culture
History & Culture
Chinggis khaan-Man of Millennium
Researchers and scholars from various countries have proclaimed Chinggis Khaan as the Man of Millennium, acknowledging that he was great organizer, diplomat, politician, and warrior who set up the legal system of Mongolia and played a decisive role in the development of foreign relations, economy and the art of war. In modern Mongolia, Chinggis Khaan is regarded as the father of the nation for his role in uniting the Mongol confederations into the Great Mongolian State and therefore providing a common identity to what had previously been nomadic tribes sharing only a language and culture. Chinggis Khaan had been a gifted boy named Temuujin, born into a family of steppe nobility in Deluun Boldog, located on the upper ends of Onon River, in Mongolia in 1162. Temuujin received the title of Chinggis Khaan(ocean king) when he became the King of the Mongol Empire in 1206
As Mongolia is a herding society, traditional Mongolian diet is based on food that can be obtained from the five domestic animals-cows, sheep, goats, horses and camels. The Mongolian diet includes a large proportion of animal fat which is necessary for the Mongols to withstand the cold winters and their hard work. Mongolia food is seasonal. In the summer months, when animal provide milk, dairy products and dried meat (borts) become staple food. The Mongolia diets also include many forms of dairy products. Staple dairy products are yogurt (tarag), cheese (bayaslag), dried curds (aaruul), cream (zuukhii), butter (urum) and various form of butterfat. Traditionally prepared on holidays and special occasions are more labor-intensive than staple foods; they include boiled, fried or steamed dumplings, (bansh, buus, khuushuur), handmade noodles (tsuivan), and barbecues (with hot stones Khorkhog and Boodog). Khorkhog is a traditional Mongolia barbecue. It is prepared by cutting up the meat of animals and placing it in a container together hot stone. When you visit a family, you will be offered traditional milk tea with salt, khoormog (yogurt from camel milk), tarag (yogurt), or airag (fermented mare’s milk). Mongolians have long supplemented diet with a variety of wild herds, vegetables and berries.
Kharakhorum & Erdene Zuu Monastery
Central region has many historical sights, natural wonders in Mongolia’s heartland, particularly in the Orkhon River Valley, which contains archaeological remains dating back several centuries. Few traces remain of Kharakhorum, the 13th-century capital of the Mongol Empire, but the nearby temple of Erdene Zuu was reputedly built from its ruins.
This sacred memorial complex dedicated to Bilge khan of Turkic empire, which flourished during the 6th-8th century, and his younger brother Kul-tegin is situated 40km northeast from Karakorum and 20km east from Ordubalik in Khashaat Soum, Arkhangai Aimag. Kul-tegin’s grandson, Iolug Tegin, had this memorial built. Bilge khan’s stele, well known as Orkhon Inscription, is 3,3m high, 1,3m wide and has 68 rows of inscription. Bilge khan, who was the latest king of Turkic empire, ruled its country for 19 years. During the excavation of the memorial in 31th of July, 2001, over 2000 finds were revealed and the most important one among them was a gemstone inlaid golden crown of Bilge khan. It was formerly an entire complex, but only this stele has been remained currently. There are over 40 runic steles in Mongolia and about 10 of them are located only in the Orkhon Valley. A trace of square burial protected by a parapet wall was in the complex. But this burial is considered to be an artificial one without a real human corpse which had a symbolic meaning. These memorials were recognized as a “cultural landscape” of the UNESCO World Heritage in 1996, although they had been destroyed much throughout its history of over thousand years.
Amarbayasgalant monastery/Monastery of Tranquil Felicity/ is one of most beautiful monasteries in Mongolia. It is located near the Selenge River at the foot of Mount Buren-Khaan small town of Selenge Province in northern Mongolia. The nearest town is Erdenet which is about 60 km to the southwest. It was built between 1726 and 1736 in Selenge province. It is dedicated to Undur Gegeen Zanabazar and built by Manchu style. Originally, Amarbayasgalant Monastery consisted of over 40 temples built on the special terrace, surrounded by a wall, measuring 207×175 m. Only 28 temples now remain they have been under State protection since 1944. Its construction expresses the planning features of the Mongolian national architecture and engineering solutions are very original. One of the interesting solutions is routing of roof water through the inside of four columns, under the floor, through stone grooves and away from the Tsogchin temple. In recent years, a spectacular ceremony called “Gongoriin Bumbanii Takhilga” has been taking place at Amarbayasgalant Monastery annually. This ceremony of worshipping a special urn is only held at the monastery and the ritual is performed under strict rule.
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